In response to the many shortcomings of existing lending projects,ethereum address list Euler has carried out quite a wealth of product mechanism innovations. Due to space limitations, only the key parts are introduced:
In order to thoroughly implement the decisions and deployments of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, this implementation plan is formulated in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Commerce and other relevant ministries and commissions in light of actual conditions.tron currency price inr1. General requirements
(1) Guiding ideologyGuided by Xi Jinping’s Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, thoroughly implement the spirit of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Plenary Sessions of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. The spirit of the speech and the important speech at the celebration meeting for the 30th anniversary of the development and opening up of Pudong, scientifically grasp the new development stage, resolutely implement the new development concept, serve the construction of a new development pattern, firmly grasp the new urban function positioning given to Shanghai by the state, and earnestly practice the "people The important concept of “building cities, people cities for the people” is to satisfy the people’s longing for a better life as the starting point and end point, adhere to the strategic basis of expanding domestic demand, and further enhance consumption. In Shanghai, building a domestic large-scale cycle center node and a domestic and international dual-cycle strategic link The fundamental supporting role of the city, making greater contributions to the overall improvement of Shanghai’s urban energy level and core competitiveness.(2) Basic principlesAdhere to government guidance and market leadership. Give better play to the government's overall planning role, strengthen top-level design and planning guidance, improve the working mechanism of linkage and coordination of all parties, improve relevant policies, and optimize system supply. Follow the laws of urban development and market rules, give full play to the decisive role of the market in resource allocation, stimulate the innovative vitality of market entities, enhance endogenous motivation, and enhance the soft power of cities.Insist on highlighting characteristics and innovative integration. Give full play to the advantages of Shanghai's resource endowment, highlight the unique advantages of the vast consumer market, agglomeration of high-end resources, active market innovation, and diversified consumer groups, extensively accumulate high-quality market players, deepen the linkage of the "four major brands", and vigorously develop various new formats and models . Promote the formation of a virtuous circle in which domestic and foreign markets are connected, industries are integrated, innovation is promoted, and rules are connected.
Adhere to scientific layout and regional linkage. Benchmarking with international first-class standards, optimizing the layout of consumer infrastructure and public service systems, strengthening hub functions, creating consumer landmarks, and comprehensively improving the city’s commercial functions and consumer environment. Focusing on major national strategic deployments, we will give full play to the radiation and driving role of Shanghai's central city, improve the regional modern circulation system, open up urban circulation blockages, and jointly create new momentum for consumption growth, and promote the formation of a strong domestic market.(3) Overall goalThe structure of Kusama's relay chain is the same as Polkadot's relay chain. Because of the shared security design, different heterogeneous chains can complete message communication. Facing the difference of heterogeneous chains, Polkadot's cross-chain protocol needs to have some different communication methods.
XCM is the message format for communication between different parachains. According to GavinWood's introduction to XCM, we extract part of the introduction to understand XCM.XCM is a message format. It is not a messaging protocol. It cannot be used to actually "send" any message between systems, its role is only to express what the receiver should do.Polkadot comes with three different systems for actually communicating XCM messages between its constituent chains: UMP, DMP, and XCMP.UMP (Upward Message Passing) allows parachains to send messages to their relay chains.
DMP (Downward Message Passing) allows the relay chain to pass messages down to its parachain.XCMP allows messages to be sent between parachains.
XCM can be used to express the meaning of messages through any one of these three communication channels.In addition to sending messages between chains, XCM is also useful in other contexts. For example, because XCM is abstract and universal, it can be used as a means for wallets to provide a durable transaction format for creating many common transactions. For chains with little business logic changes (such as Bitcoin), the transaction format or the format used by the wallet to send instructions to the chain will generally remain the same.XCM aims to be a language for the exchange of ideas between consensus systems. It should be generic enough to remain correct and useful throughout the evolving ecosystem. It is extensible, and extensibility means changeable, and it also means forward compatibility. It can run efficiently on the chain and can run in a metering environment.XCM can be used in a variety of systems, including gas metering smart contract platforms and community parachains, and trusted interactions between system parachains and their relay chains.
Although the goal of XCM is universal, flexible and future-oriented, it must of course meet actual needs, especially the transfer of tokens between chains. Throughout the DeFi world, optional fee payment is very common. You can use the XCM language to perform some specific operations.Importantly, there are many token transfer models that we hope to support: it may only be necessary to simply control the account on the remote chain, allowing the local chain to have an address on the remote chain to receive funds and ultimately transfer the funds under its control to that remote In other accounts on the chain.But there may be two consensus systems in this process, both of which are specific token systems. For example, tokens such as USDT or USDC have instances on several different chains and are completely interchangeable. It should be possible to destroy such tokens on one chain and mint corresponding tokens on another supported chain. In XCM, it can be called teleport, because the transfer of assets is actually achieved by destroying it on one side and creating a clone on the other side.The core of the XCM format is XCVM. This stands for cross-consensus virtual machine. This is an ultra-high-level non-Turing complete computer whose instructions are designed to be roughly at the same level as transactions.
The "message" in XCM is actually just a program running on XCVM. It is one or more XCM commands. The program will continue to execute, and will not end and stop until it runs to the end or encounters an error.The position in XCM is hierarchical, and some parts of the consensus are completely encapsulated into separate parts. For example, the Parachain of Polkadot completely exists in the internal position of the entire Polkadot consensus. As long as there is any change in one consensus system, it means a change in another consensus system, and the former system is the internal system of the latter.
When working in XCM, it is usually necessary to quote some kind of asset. This is because almost all existing public blockchains rely on some native digital assets to provide the backbone for their internal economic and security mechanisms. For proof-of-work blockchains such as Bitcoin, native assets (BTC) are used to reward miners who develop the blockchain and prevent double spending. For proof-of-stake blockchains such as Polkadot, native assets (DOT) are used as a form of collateral, and network administrators (called equity holders) must take risks to generate valid blocks and obtain physical rewards.Expense payment in XCM is a very important use case. Most parachains in the Polkadot community will require their interlocutors to pay for any operations they wish to perform to avoid "spam" and DDOS.
When chains have good reasons to believe that their interlocutors are trustworthy, they can also not pay. For example, this is the case when the Polkadot relay chain communicates with the Polkadot Statemint public interest chain. However, in general, fees are a good way to ensure that XCM messages and their transmission protocols will not be overused.Let's take a look at how to pay when XCM messages arrive at Polkadot.For systems that do need to pay a certain fee, XCM provides the ability to use assets to purchase execution resources. In a nutshell, this includes three parts:Provide some assetsExchange assets in terms of computing time (weight in Substrate).XCM follows the instructions
After years of research and development, we finally formed a multi-chain market structure. There are currently more than 100 active public blockchains, many of which have their own unique applications, users, geographic distribution, security models, and design trade-offs. Regardless of what individual communities believe, the reality is that the universe tends to increase entropy, and the number of these networks is likely to continue to increase in the future.This type of market structure makes it necessary for us to obtain interoperability between different networks. Many developers have realized this, and the number of blockchain bridges surged last year, aiming to bring together increasingly fragmented networks. As of this writing, there have been more than 40 different bridging projects.
Interoperability unlocks innovation possibilitiesWith the development of a single ecosystem, they will develop their own unique advantages: stronger security, greater throughput, cheaper transaction fees, better privacy, specific resource supply (such as storage, computing, bandwidth), and Regional developer and user communities, etc. Bridges are important because they allow users to access new platforms and protocols; enable interoperability between protocols; allow developers to collaborate to build new products, and so on. More specifically, they have the following benefits:
Improve the productivity and utility of existing crypto assetsBridging allows existing encrypted assets to be transferred to a new platform to do new things. like:
Send DAI to Terra to buy synthetic assets on Mirror, or earn revenue on AnchorSend TopShot from Flow to Ethereum as collateral for NFTfiUse DOT and ATOM as collateral to lend DAI on MakerExpand the product features of existing agreements
Bridging expands the design space that the protocol can implement. E.g:Use Yearn vaults for liquid mining on Solana and Avalanche
NFT cross-chain sharing order book on Ethereum and Flow on Rarible ProtocolIndex Coop's proof of equity index
Unlock new feature use cases for users and developersBridging gives users and developers more choices. like:
Arbitrage the price of SUSHI across DEX on Optimism, Arbitrum and PolygonUse Bitcoin to pay for Arweave storage feesBid NFT on Tezos with PartyBidFrom an abstract perspective, a bridge can be defined as follows: a system that transmits information between two or more blockchains. And "information" can refer to assets, contract calls, proofs, or status. Most bridge designs consist of the following parts:
Monitoring: There is usually a participant (or a "oracle", "verifier", "relayer") monitoring the status of the source chain.Message delivery/relay: After the participants receive the event, they need to transfer information from the source chain to the target chain.
Consensus: In some models, in order to forward information to the target chain, a consensus must be reached between participants monitoring the source chain.Signature: Participants need to encrypt and sign the information sent to the target chain, which can be single-signatured or as part of a threshold signature scheme.
There are roughly four types of bridging schemes, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages:Asset-specific: The sole purpose of this bridge type is to provide access to specific assets on external chains. These assets are usually "wrapped" assets (assets that are fully mortgaged by the underlying assets in custody or non-custody). Bitcoin is the most common asset bridged to other chains, and there are seven different bridges on Ethereum alone. This kind of bridging is the easiest to achieve, and obtain huge liquidity from it. But its functions are limited and need to be re-implemented on each target chain. Examples are wBTC and wrapped Arweave.