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In addition to the Sequencer, the network also needs more validators (Validators) to review each transaction in real time, making the securitethereum price usd calculatory of the network more reliable. They said, "Although there is only one Sequencer, we hope to have more verifications. To ensure the correctness of the agreement, so we will announce in the short term the well-known institutions that will participate in this verification process.”

zkSync uses zk-SNARKs; StarkNet uses zk-STARKs. For space reasons, the bitcoin cash blockchain sizedetails of the two technologies will not be discussed. We only need to know the final difference: zk-SNARKs on-chain storage space and gas consumption Both are smaller, but zk-STARKs are better in terms of safety.In January of this year, StarkWare announced the roadmap for the development of StarkNet. The team will complete the final Layer 2 ecological deployment (planet, constellation, and universe) in three stages, gradually transition from single-application Rollups to multi-application Rollups, and finally realize the entire governance DAOization.

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StarkNet roadmap plans to complete the aggregation of multiple applications before the end of the yearBut currently, StarkNet is still in the testing phase. On September 1, StarkNet released the Alpha 2 test version, which supports the interaction between smart contracts for the first time. It is reported that the team is currently preparing for the release of the StarkNet Alpha mainnet, which will be approved by then Online application in the form of whitelist.In fact, in addition to the StarkNet mentioned above, Starkware has also proposed another expansion solution, StarkEx (Validium). Currently, there are not many applications that use the StarkEx solution. They are the following four: DeversiFi, dYdX, ImmutableX and Sorare.Although StarkEx also belongs to ZK Rollup, not all data is uploaded to the main chain at the first level. Therefore, theoretically, it can have higher scalability and processing speed. It is precisely for this reason that compared to other Rollup solutions, StarkEx network Data availability and security risks are higher.Proof mechanism: zero-knowledge proof

StarkNet advantage: Data is stored on the main chain, which is more secure than other ZK expansion solutions.StarkNet Challenge: EVM compatible technology is more difficult, and the gas fee is slightly higher than zkSync.For example, on September 10, a company called Guangzhou Sanhaijing Apparel applied for the registration of 12 meta-universe-related trademarks, and most of the trademarks can be seen as "touching porcelain" at a glance.

Including "Blizzard Element Universe", "Ali Element Universe", "WOW Element Universe", "LOL Element Universe", "DNF Element Universe", etc. Among them, "Light Dollar Universe" is it because both "Photon Yuan Universe" and "Sky Dollar Universe" have been registered by Tencent? Doubtful.In order to prevent the trademark from being registered, MihaSeeing this, you may wonder to yourself, are all applying for the Meta Universe trademark, can all industry companies create Meta Universe?Regarding this question, it is actually difficult to explain clearly, but it is not difficult to answer. As the ultimate form of the Internet, Metaverse is like a basket, and everything can be put in it, such as games, VR, AI, NFT, social and so on.

But not all companies have the qualifications to enter, and it is actually difficult for ordinary companies to compete fairly with major companies.Which "components" are big factories preparing

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If ordinary manufacturers can't contribute to the meta-universe, can the big ones? It depends on how you define the "meta universe".Metaverse refers to a digital universe built with many shared infrastructures, standards and protocols with the three major technologies of XR, AI, and Blockchain as the core.It is not separated from the physical world, but integrated with each other.In March 2021, Roblox was officially listed as the "Meta Universe Concept Stock", which was also regarded as a sign of the successful landing of Meta Universe by the outside world.

Roblox's definition of Metaverse/metaverse products contains eight elements: identity (virtual identity), friends (social), immersion, low latency, diversification, anywhere, economic system and civilization.It can be said that, including product form and concept definition, Roblox is relatively closer to the Metaverse vision, and the game is also the most promising initial form of the metaverse by the market. This is also an important reason why many big companies are working on game creation platforms such as PGC/UGC.For example, Tencent is not only one of the main shareholders of Roblox, but also responsible for the issuance of Roblox in China; the representative of the emerging Internet giant, ByteDance, was revealed in April this year to invest in the code universe; Lilith, one of the four little dragons in Shanghai, is building a UGC creation platform ——Da Vinci.In fact, judging from the common characteristics of these platforms, they not only have elements such as "virtual identity, social networking, and diversification", but more importantly, they can provide sustainable content to enrich the entire virtual world and give users a deeper sense of immersion.

In addition to working on the content side, hardware equipment upgrades also play a role in enhancing the immersion of the meta universe. At the current stage, it is mainly reflected in the VR/AR level.Facebook CEO Zuckerberg firmly believes that VR is the next generation computing platform. With Oculus Quest2 headset shipments exceeding 5.5 million units, this prediction seems to be becoming a reality.

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At the same time, he emphasized that "the primary goal of all our plans is to help realize the meta-universe."In the eyes of the general public, the meta-universe can be referred to or more visualized, just like the "Oasis Oasis World" in the movie "Number One Player". Through a set of VR equipment, the male protagonist Wade Woz entered the virtual world of human salvation-Oasis, and embarked on another journey in life as Parsifal.

On August 29, the VR (virtual reality) startup Pico issued a letter to all employees, disclosing that the company was acquired by ByteDance. It is reported that the price negotiated between the two parties was around 8 billion at the beginning, and later rose to more than 9 billion. In addition, there have also been other major game companies talking to Pico.To put it simply, everyone is aiming for the next-generation gaming platform that can promote the development of Metaverse.Of course, in addition to UGC/PGC, VR, etc., AI is considered to be the most important technical part of Metaverse. On the one hand, AI can empower the continuous and efficient production of content; second, AI can make things in the virtual world mirror the real world.For example, the sci-fi movie "Out of Control Player" released not long ago, its core fun lies in the emergent narrative brought by high-level AI NPCs. That is, NPCs in this world are no different from real people.From the perspective of the layout of major factories, the AI ​​field is also a section that it attaches great importance to. For example, Tencent builds AI Lab artificial intelligence laboratory; ByteDance acquired AI game technology developer Shenji Intelligent; Lilith invested in AI intelligence technology developer Qiyuan World; Mihayou formed an AI "inverse business" team.Conclusion:

Looking back, it is difficult for us to figure out what components the meta universe needs.It seems that as long as the real world can be more realistically mapped into the virtual world, all products, content, and technologies are just needed. But at this stage, none of them can play a substantive role.

Rather than saying that the market is concerned about Metaverse, it is better to say that there is some anxiety behind the game/Internet makers. Anxious that Roblox has a market value of more than 40 billion US dollars, they all follow UGC/PGC; Facebook launches Quest2 and immediately upgrades its own VR equipment; Zhongqingbao and Tom Cat say "good on meta universe", and the market follows crazy investment.Even anxious that cybersquatting may not be able to use the "XX Yuan universe" trademark.

The capital market wants to use the imagination of the meta-universe to tell "good stories" to be able to understand it, and to be able to understand it in the first place for major manufacturers. What is difficult to understand is that those who do not have core business and capabilities have to spend money to speculate on concepts.Tranchess is a tokenized asset management and derivatives trading protocol. It was first proposed in early 2020, and it quickly developed to its current state. Inspired by the ability of some funds to meet users' different risk preferences, Tranchess' goal is to provide different risk/return matrices from a single major fund (such as BTC) that tracks specific underlying assets. Its vision is to enhance the asset management capabilities of DeFi users, hoping to provide long-term solutions for users who hold encrypted assets for a long time.

At present, the project has been audited by Paidun and CertiK.Tranchess currently mainly includes three products: QUEEN token is a higher-yielding bitcoin tracking product; BISHOP token is a neutral coin with income delta similar to a stable currency; ROOK is a BTC tracking with 2 times leverage Token.Queen represents a fund of funds linked to the BTCB price index. Holding Queen is equivalent to depositing BTCB in Tranchess for BTCB single currency mining. Queen's net worth is completely positively correlated with the value of BTCB. Investors can deposit their BTCB into the platform to mint into Queen, or directly use USDC to buy Queen. Holding Queen is equivalent to holding BTC, and Queen can participate in mining to obtain platform token CHESS.Bishop is one of the sub-funds of the Queen of Funds of Funds (type A sub-funds, low-risk funds), which can be regarded as a USDC income product. Bishop holders charge interest at a specific interest rate that changes weekly. Every week, the platform will read the USDC interest rate from Venus and add the premium voted by the community to the interest rate. The resulting interest rate will become Bishop's fixed interest rate next week.

Bishop is essentially a capital pool. Holding Bishop is equivalent to depositing USDC in Tranchess for USDC single currency mining.Rook is the other half of the Fund of Funds Queen's sub-funds (type B sub-funds, high-risk funds). Holding Rook is equivalent to depositing BTCB on the platform, and using the deposited BTCB as a margin, borrowing from Bishop holders and continuing to purchase Enter the Queen of Funds of Funds and pay a certain amount of interest to Bishop holders.

CHESS is its native token, with a total of 300 million issued. It is currently issued in BSC, but it follows the Erc-20 standard and is widely used for voting and incentives in the Tranchess ecology. CHESS holders will currently share 50% of the agreement fee income, and will vote to determine the internal interest margin imposed on ROOK holders. The team plans to put products on more blockchains in the future and add different types of underlying assets.20% of the token supply will be allocated to the core team;

5% of tokens will be provided to seed investors;15% will be reserved for future investors to use in subsequent rounds of financing;

50% of the tokens will be allocated to liquidity mining;10% of the token supply is reserved for the Tranchess ecosystem/treasury-including but not limited to partnerships, third-party services, listing fees.The purpose of CHESS is to slowly reduce circulation within 4 years. 50% of the community rewards will be distributed on Pancake and TranchesApp.Of the 150 million tokens allocated for community incentives, 120 million are being distributed on the Tranchess app. The liquidity mining activity will continue until November 11, 2021. CHESS will be distributed to QUEEN, BISHOP and ROOK holders in a fixed ratio of 3:4:2.

In terms of products, it aims to track more underlying encrypted assets, add various fund structures through innovative synthetic derivatives, and achieve more use cases for its governance token CHESS. Tranchess is looking to expand to multiple chains and build a mature technology and marketing team to cooperate with other agreements in the ecosystem. The project plans to establish a community DAO by the end of this year to take over the governance of the agreement.In July, Tranchess Protocol completed a $1.5 million seed round of funding, led by Arrows Capital and Spartan Group, with participation from Binance Labs, Longhash Ventures, and IMO Ventures. The funds will be used to expand the product to a multi-chain system and transition to the DAO structure before the end of the year.

Tranchess is a team of blockchain and financial experts who have different backgrounds and experiences around the world, covering the U.S., Europe and Asian time zones. Most of the members of the Tranchess team come from investment banks, asset management companies and hedge funds, and have extensive experience in network security for exchanges and DeFi protocols.Its co-founder is Danny Chong. Danny Chong has more than 16 years of banking experience. He was responsible for Crédit Agricole CIB's foreign exchange and fixed-rate product (FX & Rates) sales SEA department.

On September 1, the public beta version of Arbitrum, the general expansion network of Ethereum, was officially launched. At the beginning of the launch, it was sought after by many DeFi blue chip applications such as Uniswap, Sushiswap, and Curve. In less than two weeks, the amount of funds locked up reached 2.2 billion. The US dollar has surpassed the public chains of Fantom, Heco, Near, etc., and is close to the current two-tier leader polygon.The launch of Arbitrum has become a milestone in the history of Layer 2 development, and it has been praised by many as "finally there is a "true second layer"." The second layer network, or Layer 2 as we often say, generally refers to the second layer of Ethereum. Their operating logic is simply: to reduce the data processing on the main chain by performing calculations or storage outside the main chain , So as to achieve the purpose of expanding performance, but still relying on the status of the main chain security.

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Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster